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ASTROLOGY











Every history of astrology must necessarily begin with the Babylonians, who are commonly thought to have invented astrology. The Babylonians left us one of the earliest overtly astrological documents, the Enuma Anu Enlil. This document may date as far back as 1600 B.C., and it enumerates astronomical omens and their interpretation.

The focus of Babylonian Astrology was to predict events that affected the entire nation and its cities, whether it was war, famine, or meteorological events. The fate of the King was also a major concern. Astrologers employed by the King were expected to explain astronomical omens, and advise the King accordingly.

It is thought that in about 400 B.C., the Babylonians started working out the mathematical means of predicting astronomical events. This information was quickly disseminated throughout the Middle East and India. Information was recorded on clay tablets, which was particularly helpful as the Babylonians started working with individual natal horoscopes.
History of Ancient Greek Astrology

Historically, the Greeks have been credited as the inventors of horoscopic astrology, which is the notion of representing the horoscope of a moment as a chart of the heavens at that moment. Horoscopic astrology was used for the natal horoscopes of individuals, as well as those of questions or actions, or horary Astrology and electional astrology, respectively.

The Greeks added many concepts to Babylonian Astrology, such as the notion of sect, and the related concept of signs being male or female.

Since the Romans looked to Greece for all matters cultural and scientific, they adopted Greek Astrology about 100 B.C. This is how we know that Caesar Augustus had the Moon in Capricorn, as Augustus was a great believer in the truthfulness of astrology.

The Romans did not introduce very many innovations to Greek Astrology, but they documented it very well, such as the famous Astronomica by the poet Marcus Manilius. This is a comprehensive work covering many aspects of astrology.

Another important Roman-era work is by Dorotheus of Sidon, who composed a five book poem about astrology. This is a handbook, which just happens to be in verse. The concept of Triplicities, that is, that each sign is ruled by three planets, the day ruler, the night ruler and the participating ruler, comes from Dorotheus’s book.

Perhaps the most influential astrological writer of this era was Claudius Ptolemy, who wrote the famous Tetrabiblos, a kind of summary of the Greek Astrology of his day. This book is filled with various observations and aphorisms, and abbreviated methods of astrological prediction in various fields.

Finally, there is equally important Vettius Valens, who, unlike Ptolemy, was a practicing astrologer. He fills in many of the gaps left in Ptolemy's work, and includes over a hundred horoscopes in his book, titled Anthology.
History of Medieval Astrology

Much of the history of medieval astrology is actually the history of Arabian astrology, as the newly prosperous and victorious Islamic empire actively assimilated many of the Greek astrological works.

A very important astrologer in the eighth century was the Persian Zoroastrian Naubakht. He was one of the two astrologers to elect the horoscope for the founding of the city of Baghdad. You can view Baghdad's horoscope here, and read about its meaning. It is a fascinating glimpse into top-notch electional astrology.

There was a great deal of cultural exchange between the Muslim lands and India, which had its own thriving and ancient system of astrology. There was some amount of cultural and knowledge exchange between the two astrological systems, most notably the use of what we today call "Arabic numerals," which are in fact Indian symbols for the numbers.

Perhaps the most famous Arab astrologer was Masha’allah, who lived at the end of the eighth century and early 9th-century A.D. several of his books survive today, and he wrote on many mundane astrological topics, such as the great conjunctions, eclipses, and annual solar revolutions. He taught several other influential astrologers, including Abu Ali al-Khayyat, who wrote the judgment of Nativity's, an important book on natal astrology available today.

The most prolific of the Arabic astrologers was Abu Ma’shar, who, like many of the other Arabic writers, focused on mundane topics, such as the great conjunctions. Some other very important astrologers are Al Biruni, whose book is available today, as well as Abraham Ben Ezra, whose work has been translated in the last decade or so into English.

As the Islamic empire receded somewhat in influence, we see the Europeans taking over much of astrological practice from them. One of the most important European medieval astrologers was Guido Bonatti, who wrote an extensive and lengthy work on astrology, A Book of Introduction to the Judgments of the Stars. Bonatti was particularly renowned for his skill as a horary astrologer.
Astrology in the Renaissance and Enlightenment

As the medieval era gave way to the Renaissance, and later to the Enlightenment, a new kind of astrologer began to appear. These astrologers were just as interested in the mathematical aspect of astrology, and in precise calculation, as in the interpretation of horoscopes. Many are more renowned today as mathematicians and astronomers than as astrologers. However, they likely would not have made the distinction between their astronomical and astrological pursuits.

It was during the end of the Renaissance that astrology in the West began its long decline; the Age of Enlightenment declared astrology corrupt and superstitious, and the art no longer attracted the finest minds of the time.

Many new means of dividing the houses were invented during this period, including the Regiomontanian method from 1490, and the Placidian method, which is most popular today. The concept of secondary progressions (secondary because they were considered to be supplemental to primary directions) was invented by Kepler, a court astrologer to Rudolph II.

One of the most extensive works surviving from this period is the opus of Morinus (Jean Baptiste Morin de Villefranche), a 17th century astrologer and doctor, working for several crowned heads of Europe. Many astrologers today, especially those on the Continent, follow Morinus’s methods.

The most readily available works from this time is Christian Astrology by William Lilly, a 17th century English astrologer. Lilly was perhaps the greatest post-medieval practitioner of horary astrology. He published a best-selling annual astrological almanac, and predicted the Great Fire of London. His equal and rival on the Royalist side (Lilly was pro-Parliament in the English Civil War) was John Gadbury, who was well known in his own right for his annual almanac and collection of notable horoscopes.
Modern Astrology

When Uranus was discovered in 1785, a new era in astrology was slowly beginning. With the departure from the classical astrological cosmology in which only the seven traditional planets existed, many astrologers began using Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto in their astrological interpretations. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, astrology enthusiasts such as Alan Leo and other Theosophists began to move away from astrology as a predictive art, and began adapting it to psychological interpretation. This approach was unprecedented historically, as ancient astrologers focused much more on what the future held as opposed to the contents of a person's soul. However, with the parallel cultural interest in psychotherapy and psychology, this modern version of astrology found immediate understanding and acceptance among 20th-century astrologers.

Some notable 20th century astrologers include Vivian Robson, who wrote several important books, such as Electional Astrology, and The Fixed Stars and Constellations in Astrology. While these books do not rival more traditional, older sources, they are some of the best writing on astrology from the 20th century. Evangeline Adams, perhaps the best-known American astrologer, practiced in Boston and New York City, and wrote more popular astrological books such as Astrology: Your Place in the Sun.

Some of the astrologers re-adopting and rediscovering traditional astrological methods include Olivia Barclay, a big proponent of horary astrology as explicated by William Lilly, Robert Hand, Robert Zoller (a medievalist), and John Frawley, a student of Olivia Barclay.

In recent years, however, there has been a strong "traditional" movement back to astrology as it was practiced before the 20th century.

I have provoded you the ways from which you can find your signs.To know the details about
your signs and how they control your life click on your astrology sign below:




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